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sexta-feira, 30 de março de 2012

The Elements Of Non Euclidean Geometry



Julian Lowell Coolidge

OXFORD AT THE CLARENDON PRESS | 1909

online: archive.org


Chapters Include: Foundation For Metrical Geometry In A Limited Region; Congruent Transformations; The Three Hypotheses; The Introduction Of Trigonometric Formulae; Analytic Formulae; Consistency And Significance Of The Axioms; The Geometric And Analytic Extension Of Space; The Groups Of Congruent Transformations; Point, Line, And Plane Treated Analytically; The Higher Line Geometry; The Circle And The Sphere; Conic Sections; Quadric Surfaces; Areas And Volumes; Introduction To Differential Geometry; etc.

Introduction To Non Euclidean Geometry

Harold E. Wolfe

The Dryden Press | 1945

online: archive.org

PDF - 8,11 Mb


Introduction to NON-EUCLIDEAN GEOMETRY by HAROLD E. WOLFE . PREFACE This book has been written in an attempt to provide a satisfactory textbook to be used as a basis for elementary courses in Non-Euclid ean Geometry. The need for such a volume, definitely intended for classroom use and containing substantial lists of exercises, has been evident for some time. It is hoped that this one will meet the re quirements of those instructors who have been teaching the subject tegularly, and also that its appearance will encourage others to institute such courses. x The benefits and amenities of a formal study of Non-Euclidean Geometry are generally recognized. Not only is the subject matter itself valuable and intensely fascinating, well worth the time of any student of mathematics, but there is probably no elementary course which exhibits so clearly the nature and significance of geometry and, indeed, of mathematics in general. However, a mere cursory acquaintance with the subject will not do. One must follow its development at least a little way to see how things come out, and try his hand at demonstrating propositions under circumstances such that intuition no longer serves as a guide. For teachers and prospective teachers of geometry in the secondary schools the study of Non-Euclidean Geometry is invaluable. With out it there is strong likelihood that they will not understand the real nature of the subject they are teaching and the import of its applications to the interpretation of physical space. Among the first books on Non-Euclidean Geometry to appear in English was one, scarcely more than a pamphlet, written in 1880 by G. Chrystal. Even at that early date the value of this study for those preparing to teach was recognized. In the preface to this little brochure, Chrystal expressed his desire to bring pangeometrical speculations under the notice of those engaged in the teaching of geometry He wrote It will not be supposed that I advocate the introduction of pan geometry as a school subject it is for the teacher that I advocate vi PREFACE such a study. It is a great mistake to suppose that it is sufficient for the teacher of an elementary subject to be just ahead of his pupils. No one can be a good elementary teacher who cannot handle his subject with the grasp of a master. Geometrical insight and wealth of geometrical ideas, either natural or acquired, are essential to a good teacher of geometry and I know of no better way of cultivat ing them than by studying pan geometry. Within recent years the number of American colleges and uni versities which offer courses in advanced Euclidean Geometry has increased rapidly. There is evidence that the quality of the teaching of geometry in our secondary schools has, accordingly, greatly improved. But advanced study in Euclidean Geometry is not the only requisite for the good teaching of Euclid. The study of Non-Euclidean Geometry takes its place beside it as an indispensable part of the training of a well-prepared teacher of high school geometry. This book has been prepared primarily for students who have completed a course in calculus. However, although some mathe matical maturity will be found helpful, much of it can be read profitably and with understanding by one who has completed a secondary school course in Euclidean Geometry. He need only omit Chapters V and VI, which make use of trigonometry and calcu lus, and the latter part of Chapter VII. In Chapters II and III, the historical background of the subject has been treated quite fully. It has been said that no subject, when separated from its history, loses more than mathematics. This is particularly true of Non-Euclidean Geometry...

Non-Euclidean Geometry: A Critical And Historical Study Of Its Development


Roberto Bonola

Chicago Open Court Pub. Co | 1912

online: archive.org

PDF - 11,2 Mb

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Examines various attempts to prove Euclid's parallel postulate — by the Greeks, Arabs and Renaissance mathematicians. Ranging through the 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries, it considers forerunners and founders such as Saccheri, Lambert, Legendre, W. Bolyai, Gauss, Schweikart, Taurinus, J. Bolyai and Lobachewsky. Includes 181 diagrams.



Table of Contents

Chapter I. The Attempts to prove Euclid's Parallel Postulate.
1-5. The Greek Geometers and the Parallel Postulate
6. The Arabs and the Parallel Postulate
7-10. The Parallel Postulate during the Renaissance and the 17th Century
Chapter II. The Forerunners on Non-Euclidean Geometry.
11-17. GEROLAMO SACCHERI (1667-1733)
18-22. JOHANN HEINRICH LAMBERT (1728-1777)
23-26. The French Geometers towards the End of the 18th Century
27-28. ADRIEN MARIE LEGENDRE (1752-1833)
29. WOLFGANG BOLYAI (1775-1856)
30. FRIEDRICH LUDWIG WACHTER (1792-1817)
30. (bis) BERNHARD FRIEDRICH THIBAUT (1776-1832)
Chapter III. The Founders of Non-Euclidean Geometry.
31-34. KARL FRIEDRICH GAUSS (1777-1855)
35. FERDINAND KARL SCHWEIKART (1780-1859)
36-38. FRANZ ADOLF TAURINUS (1794-1874)
Chapter IV. The Founders of Non-Euclidean Geometry (Cont.).
39-45. NICOLAI IVANOVITSCH LOBATSCHEWSKY (1793-1856)
46-55. JOHANN BOLYAI (1802-1860)
56-58. The Absolute Trigonometry
59. Hypotheses equivalent to Euclid's Postulate
60-65. The Spread of Non-Euclidean Geometry
Chapter V. The Later Development of Non-Euclidean Geometry.
66. Introduction
Differential Geometry and Non-Euclidean Geometry
67-69. Geometry upon a Surface
70-76. Principles of Plane Geometry on the Ideas of RIEMANN
77. Principles of RIEMANN'S Solid Geometry
78. The Work of HELMHOLTZ and the Investigations of LIE
Projective Geometry and Non-Euclidean Geometry
79-83. Subordination of Metrical Geometry to Projective Geometry
84-91. Representation of the Geometry of LOBATSCHEWSKY-BOLYAI on the Euclidean Plane
92. Representation of RIEMANN'S Elliptic Geometry in Euclidean Space
93. Foundation of Geometry upon Descriptive Properties
94. The Impossibility of proving Euclid's Postulate
Appendix I. The Fundamental Principles of Statistics and Euclid's Postulate.
1-3. On the Principle of the Lever
4-8. On the Composition of Forces acting at a Point
9-10. Non-Euclidean Statics
11-12. Deduction of Plane Trigonometry from Statics
Appendix II. CLIFFORD'S Parallels and Surface. Sketch of CLIFFFORD-KLEIN'S Problems.
1-4. CLIFFORD'S Parallels
5-8. CLIFFORD'S Surface
9-11. Sketch of CLIFFORD-KLEIN'S Problem
Appendix III. The Non-Euclidean Parallel Construction and other Allied Constructions.
1-3. The Non-Euclidean Parallel Construction
4. Construction of the Common Perpendicular to two non-intersecting Straight Lines
5. Construction of the Common Parallel to the Straight Lines which bound an Angle
6. Construction of the Straight Line which is perpendicular to one of the lines bounding an acute Angle and Parallel to the other
7. The Absolute and the Parallel Construction
Appendix IV. The Independence of Projective Geometry from Euclid's Postu
1. Statement of the Problem
2. Improper Points and the Complete Projective Plane
3. The Complete Projective Line
4. Combination of Elements
5. Improper Lines
6. Complete Projective Space
7. Indirect Proof of the Independence of Projective Geometry from the Fifth Postulate
8. BELTRAMI'S Direct Proof of this Independence
Appendix V. The Impossibility of proving Euclid's Postulate. An Elementary Demonstration of this Impossibility founded upon the Properties of the System of Circles orthogonal to a Fixed Circle.
1. Introduction
2-7. The System of Circles passing through a Fixed Point
8-12. The System of Circles orthogonal to a Fixed Circle
Index of Authors
The Science of Absolute Space and the Theory of Parallels

sábado, 24 de março de 2012

A source book in mathematics

David Eugene Smith

New York : McGraw-Hill Book Co. | 1929

online: archive.org



Vol. 1

Dover Publications Inc. | 1993 | 324 páginas | djvu | 10,87 Mb


PDF - 35,4 Mb 
uploading.com

The writings of Newton, Liebniz, Pascal, Riemann, Bernoulli, and others in a comprehensive selection of 125 treatises, articles from the Renaissance to end of the 19th century—most unavailable elsewhere. Grouped in five sections: Number; Algebra; Geometry; Probability; and Calculus, Functions, and Quaternions. Index. 83 illustrations.


Vol. 2

Dover Publications Inc. | 1993 | 418 páginas | djvu | 12,53Mb


PDF - 41 Mb 



sexta-feira, 16 de março de 2012

A Long Way from Euclid

Constance Reid

 Thomas Y. Crowell Company | 1834

online: archive.org

Dover Publications | 2004 | 304 páginas

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This lively guide by a prominent historian focuses on the role of Euclid's Elements in mathematical developments of the last 2,000 years. No mathematical background beyond elementary algebra and plane geometry is necessary to appreciate the clear and simple explanations, which are augmented by more than 80 drawings. 1963 edition. 

terça-feira, 13 de março de 2012

The Canterbury Puzzles with Solutions

Henry Ernest Dudeney

W. Heinemann | 1907 |195 páginas  |

online: archive.org
gutenberg.org

PDF | 14 MB

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This book includes 110 puzzles, not as individual problems but as incidents in connected stories. The first 31 are amusingly posed by pilgrims in Chaucer's Canterbury Tales. Additional puzzles are presented using different characters. Many require only the ability to exercise logical or visual skills; others offer a stimulating challenge to the mathematically advanced.

sábado, 3 de março de 2012

The foundations of mathematics; a contribution to the philosophy of geometry

Paul Carus

Chicago, The Open Court Publishing Co. | 1908

Online: archive.org